Filed under: Endangered languages, History, Language, Language Learning, Multiculturalism
Sanskrit, a classical language that is the Indian equivalent of ancient Greek or Latin, is a language which belongs to the Indo-Aryan group and is the root of many, but not all Indian languages. There are close to 300 to 400 languages spoken in India, but all of them are connected the mother language known as Sanskrit. However, Sanskrit is now spoken by less than 1% of the Indian population and is mostly used by Hindu priests during religious ceremonies. In fact, Sanskrit is one of the official languages in only one Indian state, Uttarakhand in the north, which is home to many historical Hindu temple towns.
There is a common misconception that Sanskrit is a â€œreligious languageâ€.Â In this way, Sanskrit is to Hinduism what meditation is to Buddhism. Meditation is simply a breathing technique; it is performed by Buddhists but it is not for Buddhists only nor is it a simply Buddhist practice. While it is true that many Hindu texts (and Buddhist texts for that matter) were written in Sanskrit, 95% of Sanskrit texts are not religious in nature.
Earlier this year, the Indian government sent out a leaflet ordering schools to observe what is known as â€œSanskrit Weekâ€.Â The leaflet clearly stated that â€œSanskrit and Indian culture are intertwined as most of the indigenous knowledge of India is available in this languageâ€.Â There is a push to keep Sanskrit alive, much to the dismay of those who feel it is a religious language and may not be Hindu.
There also appears to be a resurgence of interest in Sanskrit in the United States. Every time yogis roll out their respective yoga mats and greet each other with â€œNamasteâ€ (â€œThe Spirit within me salutes the Spirit in you”), they are in fact speaking Sanskrit. Â Due to the work of the Samskrita Bharathi, a non-profit organization, Sanskrit is making its way into the mainstream in US cities. Samskrita Bharathi is offering camps for children, classes for adults and children and has even established a SAFL (Sanskrit as a Foreign Language) course for high school students.
Due to this, recently, I fulfilled a lifelong dream of starting to learn Sanskrit. Â As anyone deeply involved with yoga (or Buddhism or Hinduism) will tell you, learning Sanskrit certainly helps you to understand how to pronounce all the respective terminology. Much like English, the Sanskrit alphabet is taught in a singsong type of way through use of a chant, or mantra. Â Sanskrit is a very vibratory language so speaking it is actually quite calming and peaceful.
This chant can be viewed by watching the video in the link below:
Natural Language Processing or (NLP) can best be described as the field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human languages. NLP ties into translation through use of Machine Translation (MT), which is known as the task of automatically, converting one natural language into another, preserving the meaning of the input text, and producing fluent text in the output language. Other types of NLP include information extraction, sentiment analysis and question answering.
NLP was â€œdiscoveredâ€ in the 1950s by Alan Turing, whoâ€™s â€œTuring Testâ€ (test of a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equal to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human) is one the determinants of intelligence.Â Later, in 1954, the Georgetown experiment (involving the fully automated translation of more than 60 Russian sentences into English) was conducted with the hope that within five years, machine translation would be a solved problem.
In 1964, a committee of seven scientists, the Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee, was established by the US government for the purpose of evaluating the progress in machine translation. The findings of this committee, known as the ALPAC report was issued in 1966, gained notoriety for being very skeptical of research done in machine translation so far, and emphasized the need for future research and eventually caused the U. S. Government to reduce its funding of the topic dramatically.
Later in the 1960s, many other advances in NLP were made, most notably, the ELIZA computer program (based on Carl Rogers and his client-centered brand of talk therapy) which was an early example of primitive NLP. Â ELIZA operated by processing users’ responses to scripts, the most famous of which was DOCTOR, a simulation of a Rogerian psychotherapist. Â Using almost no information about human thought or emotion, DOCTOR sometimes provided a startlingly human-like interaction.
Throughout the 1970s and 80s, new trends in NLP started to emerge. Many programmers began to write â€œconceptual ontologiesâ€ in the 1970s which structured real-world information into computer-understandable data and chatterbots (computer programs designed to simulate an intelligent conversation with one or more human users via auditory or textual methods, primarily for engaging in â€œsmall talkâ€) were also employed. Up to the 1980s, most NLP systems were based on complex sets of handwritten rules. During the late 1980s, however, we started to see the development of the cache language models upon which many speech recognition systems now rely.Â While Google has made great strides with NLP and MT, the challenge is still maintaining the integrity of sentence structure.
Moving forward, try to imagine talking to your computer and having it talk back to you in a fluid style.Â Appleâ€™s Siri is a great example of where NLP is headed but it is only the tip of the iceberg. According to my research, as NLP technology advances computers will have a much easier time understanding us.